Poisonous perennials in the garden can cause symptoms of poisoning in humans and especially children. Our list shows 8 highly poisonous specimens.
Perennials in the garden with their sonorous names, magnificent blossoms or enticing fruits enchant hobby gardeners and observers alike. However, some of them contain toxic substances that are a deadly danger. Especially toddlers like to playfully explore their environment, it may happen that they taste leaves, flowers and fruits without shyness. A small amount of plant material is enough in children to cause symptoms of intoxication.
1. Iron hat (Aconitum)
The most poisonous among the native perennials is the Eisenhut. It owes its name to the characteristic shape of its flower, which looks like an iron helmet worn by knights and mercenaries as a hood in the Middle Ages. Depending on the variety of Eisenhut is summer or herbstlühend. Its flowers can shine in the colors blue, light blue, cream or white and give off a tempting picture in the perennial border. All plant parts of the Eisenhut are very strongly poisonous.
Valid active ingredients: Aconitin (alkaloid).
Consequences of poisoning: hypothermia, heart / respiratory paralysis, convulsions, death
2. Lilies of the valley (Convallaria majalis)
The lily of the valley is one of the most popular spring flowers. It exudes its characteristic fragrance from May to June. The white flowers are hemispherical in shape. Its medium-green leaves are breitlanzettlich and have a matte surface. The fruit decoration comes to light from July to September and shows up as a bright red, pea-sized berry. Toxic plant parts of the mayy are their leaves and flowers.
Toxic agents: Convallatoxin (cardenolide).
Consequences of poisoning: nausea, cardiac arrhythmia and circulatory collapse. With a larger dose, death can occur.
3. Thimble (digitalis)
The thimble is a horstbildende and tightly upright-growing perennial. Characteristic are its solid stems, which give the plant the upright, strong hold. The adherent, dark green leaves are ovate. Grape to trumpet-shaped show the flowers. Special varieties of the foxglove are cultivated in Europe as medicinal plants for life-sustaining heart medications.
Toxic agents: digitoxin (cardenolide).
Consequences of poisoning: cardiac arrhythmia, inflammation, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, hallucinations.
4. Larkspur (Delphinium belladonna)
With its tightly upright inflorescences and its single flowers in the colors blue, white or pink, the larkspur is considered by hobby gardeners to be a popular bedding plant. Rose friends put this perennial as Rosenkavalier to their ‘queens’. The blossom of the Delphinium has a pointed, spur-like extension over its calyx. This gives the plant the perennial name. All plant parts of the Delphinium are poisonous.
Toxic agents: Elatin (alkaloid).
Consequences of poisoning: severe indigestion
5. Christmas roses (Helleborus niger)
Particularly attractive is the effect hellebore with its bowl-shaped, snow-white petals and yellow stamens conspicuous. This early-flowering shrub awakens from January already the great anticipation of the upcoming gardening season. Until April you can admire the bright flowers of this unique perennial. The leaf is palmate, the leaf margin sawn. The leaf surface is rough to shiny. The plant parts of the Christmas rose are all poisonous.
Toxic substances: Hellebrigenin (bufadienolide)
Consequences of poisoning: severe heart problems
6. Aautumn timeless (colchicum)
The real autumn time lots grow wild on moderately wet meadows. In the garden are more cultivated varieties to find. Each tuber drifts several flowers, which make themselves best between other autumn bloomers and between half-height perennials. The pure species is particularly suitable for semi-natural plantations, such as on a meadow, where it grows wild over time. All plant parts of the Herbstzeitlosen are highly poisonous.
Toxic substances: colchicine (alkaloid).
Consequences of poisoning: nausea, death by central respiratory paralysis
7. Himalayan May Apple (Podophyllum hexandrum)
With its bronze-colored shoots, the folded leaves over which light pink flowers rise, the Himalayan corn apple turns into a particularly decorative plant in the garden. The hand-lobed leaves grow greener and later often show a considerable marbling. From the flowers are egg-sized, red, oval fruits, which are poisonous. The rhizomes of the plants are also poisonous.
Toxic agents: Podophyllotoxin.
Consequences of poisoning: nausea and severe indigestion
8. Bittersweet Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)
Bittersweet nightshade is particularly appealing to ponds in semi-natural gardens when he can climb there in woods. The rather inconspicuous, purple flowers are followed by shiny red berries. The native half-shrub is a well-known, but highly poisonous medicinal plant. All plant parts are highly poisonous, especially the berries, which are attractive to children. The green, bitter fruits contain much more toxins than the sweet ones.
Toxic substances: steroidal alkaloids
Consequences of poisoning: the plant poison can lead to death